In general, the 2021 harvest year was cool and with slightly increased rains. We had an average of 15-20% less degree-days than in 2020, and the weather overall was a bit cooler than average. The yields for white varieties were low due to the October frost. Yields for red varieties were normal, with excellent quality and healthy grapes. Because of the cool climate the reds achieved great concentration and ripeness of the skins with moderate sugars and optimal acidity.Prepared by Dr. Laura Catena, Chief Winemaker Alejandro Vigil and Viticulturist Luis Reginato
In the winter of 2020 we had more snow and rain than on previous years, and that meant more available glacier water and stunning photographs. The sight of snow-capped mountains next to green, ripening vineyards contrasted with the paucity of tourists who would have delighted in the stunning sights. Given the historic reduction in Glacier water that has resulted from climate change, it was a relief to have a year with abundant water.
During the beginning of spring, on October 5th, there was a frost which affected mostly the early ripening varieties, the white varieties. Anti-frost candles were lit throughout the Uco Valley, which helped to minimize the damage. Fortunately, bud break for Malbec and Cabernet had not yet occurred so the most important red varieties were spared.
Beginning in December, brief summer rains started and recurred every 15 days approximately. These are the classic continental rains in our region.
They are short and violent, but due to the well drained soils and to their brevity, the main effect is to provide a necessary amount of water to vines that are stressed due to the summer heat. These rains which were accompanied by cloudy days resulted in lower than average temperatures for January, February, March and April, and slow ripening of the red varieties up until the end of April.
What we appreciate about 2021 is how even the weather was throughout Mendoza. There will be outstanding wines from the best vineyards such as Adrianna in Gualtallary and Nicasia in Paraje Altamira. But also, there should be some excellent entry-level wines this year, and that is wonderful for our region as a whole.
Fortunately, there were no important hail events in 2020.
In Adrianna the yields were normal. Our Chardonnay had not yet gone through bud break when the frost occurred on October 5th so it was not affected. It was a cool year with temperatures 18% below 2020. Rainfall did not increase like in other parts of Mendoza. (Over the 12 months before harvest, it rained 350mm - 14 inches-).
Temperatures in Paraje Altamira were 15% lower than in 2020, but slightly higher than the historic average. Precipitations were slightly above the historic average at 380 mm (15 inches).
Located in El Cepillo, this vineyard saw more rain than usual at 585 mm (23 inches) and was mostly dry farmed this year. Temperatures were cooler than in 2020 and lower than the average.
“2021 had some similarities to 2016 in the cool climate and somewhat increased rains. But it was less extreme than 2016. Cabernet Sauvignon can be very sensitive to extreme heat or drought, provoking what the French call “blocage.” Blocage can result in harsh tannins and overly herbal flavors/aromatics. The 2021 provided quite the opposite. The Cabernet Sauvignon ferments have beautiful fresh fruit, optimal acidity and relatively low alcohols, allowing for longer macerations that will yield wines of elegance, longitude, texture, and perfect balance. A great year for Cabernet Sauvignon in high altitude Mendoza.”
“The vintage started with a dry spring, followed by a humid summer with cooler climate in the Uco valley. The dry spring set the stage for moderate yields and the cool, sunny summer with sporadic rains kept the vines happy. The result in the Uco Valley was an early harvest of Malbec with perfect phenolic ripeness and acidity, and lowish potential alcohol (between 13 and 13.5).”
After the complex 2020 year and in the middle of the pandemic, 2021 began with the great news that on February 3rd our article “Terroir and vintage discrimination of Malbec wines based on phenolic composition across multiple sites in Mendoza, Argentina” was going to be published in Scientific Reports, a journal belonging to the Nature group. Scientific Reports is one of the most-cited journals in the world and has a rigorous peer review acceptance process.
This study by the Catena Institute of Wine with other institutions is the first in the world to compare four different levels of terroir – three large regions, six departments, 12 geographical indications, and 23 individual parcelas (smaller than one hectare) over three different vintages (2016, 2017 and 2018). Detailed climate data is provided in the study, along with the chemical analysis of 201 wines.
For the first time, this study shows that the terroir effect can be chemically described from vintage to vintage in larger regions as well as in smaller parcelas (parcels). We were able to predict with 100% certainty the vintage of each wine in our study through chemical analysis.
In addition to predicting the vintage of each wine, 11 out of 23 parcelas could be identified by chemical analysis with 100% certainty while the remaining 12 parcelas could be identified with up to 83% certainty. By combining sensory and volatile compound analysis with the chemical analysis in this study, the Institute will be able to add even better reliability to its parcela terroir prediction model. The article is open-access and can be found in this link.
Figure 1: Shows how the Malbec samples from different sites could be identified by vintage year for 2016, 17 and 18.
Figure 2: shows Sensory Analysis Heatmap for the various Malbec regions over 3 years.
By May 10th 2021 there were 3 million confirmed total COVID-infected people in Argentina since the beginning of the pandemic, and 67.325 deaths. Up until today, 30% of the target population has received at least one dose of vaccine. Sputnik V (Gamaleya), Covishield (AstraZeneca and Oxford U.), AZ-SKBio (AstraZeneca-SK Bioscience) and BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) are the vaccines available. Argentina is among a short list of countries producing a vaccine together with the Richmond lab.